Tendons and Ligaments

Tendons and ligaments have a high potential for injury.


The tendons consist of collagenous connective tissue fibers that connect muscles to bones and transmit the forces to the skeletal system. They are designed to withstand tension and allow the body to function properly.

Tendon Sheaths

The tendon sheaths are tubes filled with lubricating fluid through which the tendons glide. They are found wherever tendons run at an angle or pass over bones. This reduces the friction between the tendons and the surrounding tissues when they move.


Joints are held securely by ligaments. Ligaments are the connective tissue between two bones that help stabilize the joint. In general, they are relatively inelastic, which means they become lax or rupture completely if they are overstretched.

Ligament injuries of the knee joint are common sports injuries. The cruciate ligaments are usually overstretched or ruptured by direct or indirect trauma, for example, when the rotation movement of the knee joint is abruptly stopped.

Ligament injuries of the ankle joint also often happen during sporting activities. Ruptures of the lateral ligaments and capsular injuries in the ankle joint occur most often when the ankle is bent when landing.